Tag Archives: security

freebsd securelevel setup

FreeBSD securelevel is a security mechanism implemented in the kernel that restricts certain tasks depending on the level that is active. Not even the super user will be able to bypass this mechanism if well setup.

From securelevel man page :

-1 Permanently insecure mode - always run the system in level 0 mode.
This is the default initial value.

0 Insecure mode - immutable and append-only flags may be turned off. All devices may be read or written subject to their permissions.

1 Secure mode - the system immutable and system append-only flags may not be turned off; disks for mounted file systems, /dev/mem, and /dev/kmem may not be opened for writing; kernel modules (see kld(4)) may not be loaded or unloaded.

2 Highly secure mode - same as secure mode, plus disks may not be opened for writing (except by mount(2)) whether mounted or not. This level precludes tampering with file systems by unmounting them, but also inhibits running newfs(8) while the system is multiuser.

In addition, kernel time changes are restricted to less than or equal to one second. Attempts to change the time by more than this will log the message ``Time adjustment clamped to +1 second''.

3 Network secure mode - same as highly secure mode, plus IP packet filter rules (see ipfw(8) and ipfirewall(4)) cannot be changed and dummynet(4) configuration cannot be adjusted.

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apache and wildcard ssl

Today I had a client that wanted me to install a wildcard certificate on his new server. A small job, few minutes I said. Only that it was not really like that. The client had this situation. He had one domain foo.tld and the certificate was for *.foo.tld and a lot of subdomains bar.foo.tld apple.foo.tld and others like that. On each domain there was a different site and the client wanted each domain on to be available over SSL because he had a wildcard certificate for *.foo.com. But the problem was that he only had one ip on that server. From what I read in the apache documentation such thing would be impossible . It turns out it's not impossible if you have a wildcard certificate. The ssl FAQ specified two workarounds, #1 use different ports ( not really an option in most cases if you're thinking about serious web business ), and #2 use different ips for each vhost, this may be expensive, hard to get from some ISP, or hard to manage if you have hundreds of domains. I think there should be a line there saying that if you have a windcard ssl you will not need different ips or ports.

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